Does Copyright Extend to “facts”? The Federal Court Sets the Story Straight on the Extent of Copyright Protection in Nonfiction Work.


By Scott Miller and Carly Horvath, October 14, 2021


In the recent 2021 decision of Winkler v. Hendley, 2021 FC 498 [Winkler], the Federal Court (the “Court”) addressed an unusual issue of copyright protection in a nonfictional work containing descriptions of events with questionable historical accuracy. In its decision, the Court reiterated that copyright protection does not extend to facts. Moreover, when a work is presented as nonfiction, the facts are not subject to copyright protection. This case serves to reinforce the scope of copyright protection and sets an important precedent in Canada for copyright in nonfictional works.

Case Background and Overview of the Dispute

In Winkler, the plaintiffs, John Winkler and the estate of the late author Thomas Kelley (“Mr. Kelley”) sued author, Nate Hendley (“Mr. Hendley”), and his publisher, James Lorimer & Company Ltd., the defendants, for copyright infringement. In 1954, Mr. Kelley published a book called The Black Donnellys, which was published and sold as a nonfictional account of a notorious family from Lucan, Ontario. In 2004, Mr. Hendley wrote and published a book called The Black Donnellys: The Outrageous Tale of Canada’s Deadliest Feud (the “Outrageous Tale”), which cited The Black Donnellys as authority for many of the historical events detailed in the book. Despite The Black Donnellys being published as nonfiction, the plaintiffs argued that some of the events described in the book were actually fictional, or contained embellishments made by the author. It was on the basis of these alleged embellishments and “fictional accounts” that the plaintiffs based their claim of copyright infringement against the defendants under sections 3[1] and 27[2] of the Copyright Act (the “Act”).

Analysis and Decision

In its analysis, the Court began by clarifying that in Canada, copyright subsists “in every original literary work”, regardless of “whether that work is one of fiction or nonfiction”[3]. The Court further reiterated the longstanding principle that there is no copyright protection in facts or ideas, but rather, copyright protects the original expression of those ideas. What is critical for copyright infringement is whether there was a substantial taking of the work in issue, defined as the “part of the work that represents a substantial portion of the authors’ skill and judgment”[4]. Importantly, the historical accuracy of the presented facts in a work is not contemplated by the Act. Therefore, the factual aspects of The Black Donnellys were excluded from the Court’s comparison of passages from The Black Donnellys and the Outrageous Tale in its determination of whether there was copying of a “substantial part” of the originality of The Black Donnellys.

After the facts were excluded, the Court concluded that any similarities between the works were so minimal that they did not amount to a substantial taking. Therefore, the Court held that there was no copyright infringement. Moreover, the Court stressed that an author cannot publish a work as nonfiction and later claim that the facts were actually fiction for the purpose of pursuing a copyright case. There are clear public policy reasons behind this principle; the public should be able to rely upon published facts without the concern that the author will later turn around and sue for copyright infringement at a whim. The Court did leave open the possibility that future cases may arise in which asserted “facts” are so implausible that the work must be interpreted as a fiction; however, this scenario was not applicable in this case.

Importance of Court Decision and Key takeaways

  • Winkler is the first Canadian decision addressing a nonfiction work that was later claimed to be fiction.
  • The law is similar in other countries; for example, in the United States, the doctrine of copyright estoppel (also known as the “asserted truths” doctrine) protects against copyright holders of a nonfiction work who subsequently seek to claim that the work is fiction as grounds for copyright infringement.
  • The Court further affirmed the longstanding principle that there is no copyright protection in facts or ideas but rather the expression of those ideas. Importantly, as a general rule, the accuracy of such facts or ideas is not contemplated for the purposes of copyright protection.


The decision in Winkler is an important consideration for authors who intend to publish and market a book, and highlights the need to look to the future regarding the scope of copyright protection in a published work. Of particular importance is the need to be clear about what is being presented as fact and what is embellished in a nonfictional account. Therefore, prospective authors should also consider consulting with a lawyer experienced in copyright law to discuss how they can best protect their rights in a given literary work.

For expert assistance with any issues pertaining to copyright in a work, please reach out to MBM for a free consultation:

Scott Miller, Co-Managing Partner, Head of the Litigation Department
T: 613.801.1099
E: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Carly Horvath, 2022 Articling Student
T: 613.801.0456
E: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

[1] Copyright Act, R.S.C., 1985, c. C-42, s 3(1).

Copyright in works

3 (1) For the purposes of this Act, copyright, in relation to a work, means the sole right to produce or reproduce the work or any substantial part thereof in any material form whatever.

[2] Ibid, s 27(1).

Infringement generally

27 (1) It is an infringement of copyright for any person to do, without the consent of the owner of copyright, anything that by this Act only the owner of the copyright has the right to do.

[3] Winkler at paras 53-54 citing CCH Canada Ltd v Law Society of Upper Canada, 2004 SCC 13 at paras 8, 14.

[4] Cinar Corporation v Robinson, 2013 SCC 73 at para 26.

This article is general information only and is not to be taken as legal or professional advice. This article does not create a solicitor-client relationship between you and MBM Intellectual Property Law LLP. If you would like more information about intellectual property, please feel free to reach out to MBM for a free consultation.
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